Concept of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence research is currently an excellent education which has an expanding market demand. So, its future is supposed to be bright as technology increases. To conduct artificial intelligence research successfully, it is wise to get your master’s or doctorate in computer science or cognitive science. Also you will need a good grounding in programming and system analysis, as well as knowledge of several computer languages.
The year 2000 came and has gone. Despite the predictions of countless sci-fi novels and movies, the world has yet to witness the emergence of true artificial intelligence a computer with cognitive abilities (and presumably the consciousness) of an average person. Does this mean the AI effort is ruined to failure? Read on to discover the current lines of thought about “machines with souls.”
1. There are two basic approaches to AI: “top-down” and “bottom-up.” The “bottom-up” technique is the one most folks are familiar with; it involves programming as many rules as possible (millions and millions of lines of code) in an attempt to reach the level of complexity at which true intelligence emerged. But the majority of computer scientists think the “top-down” approach-which allows a computer to “learn” about its environment starting from a few basic principles-is more promising.
2. The ultimate goal is to pass the Turing Test. In a typical Turing Test, a human interrogator conducts two concurrent conversations via instant-messaging: one with a human subject, and one with a computer that has most probably attained human-level intelligence. If, at hours or days end of talk, the interrogators can’t tell which subject is human and which is artificial, then the computer is measured to have passed the test and attained a human level of cognition.
3. Reverse engineering may be key as researchers are able to explore the functioning of the human brain in superior and larger detail, it may be possible to model a computer on the complex functioning of billions of neurons-thus invoking AI by simulating the human brain. Although the technology isn’t quite there yet, many experts believe such “reverse-engineering” will provide most of the advances in future AI.
4. Computer consciousness may be an unachievable goal. Most scientists have the same opinion that if a computer passes a Turing experiment, there’s no reason to deny that it’s someway “conscious.” However, a minority of physicists and mathematicians believe that computers will never be able to attain awareness, for technical reasons related to the limited ability of a logical system to understand its own operating principles.
5. A truly intelligent computer may be random. Once a computer has reached a human level of cognition, it may be possible for that computer (in cooperation with others of its kind) to design a yet more advanced computer that will be beyond a human’s ability to understand. This, briefly, is what all those sci-fi writers were worried about: once this point has been reached, it’s likely that computers truly will take over the world!